Ethics and malpractice statement

If the Editors are made aware of an allegation of misconduct related to the published material, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines will be followed.

Editors encourage Authors, Reviewers and Readers to contact the Editorial Office via email, phone, or post in the case of any suspicion of misconduct, such as (but not limited to): plagiarism, data falsification, figures/tables/citation manipulation or reuse without proper consent, unethical AI usage, authorship, and contribution problems.

Allegations brought to the Editors’ or Publisher’s attention (pre- and post- publication) will result in specific-to-case measures that will be implemented according to the COPE guidelines. Editors together with the Publisher will undertake an investigation in order to verify the allegations. The outcomes of the procedure will be communicated to the sender, to the subject of the allegations and to appropriate institutions. In the case of false allegations, the outcome will also be communicated to all parties involved, including the institution and managers of the whistle-blower.

Editor, Author and Reviewer roles

The Journal follows the COPE Code of Conduct in defining roles and duties, as well as Recommendations for Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications specified by the Council of Science Editors (CSE).

Roles and responsibilities of the Editors:

− The Editor-in-Chief (EiC) is appointed by the University of Warsaw. It is the EiC’s obligation to appoint Deputy Editors and other staff needed for the Journal’s functioning.

− Editors are accountable for all the content published in the Journal.

− They are responsible for monitoring and ensuring fairness, timeliness, thoroughness, and civility of the peer-review and editorial processes.

− They maintain the integrity of the academic record of the published material.

− They are responsible for making unbiased decisions.

− They follow the COPE guidelines ( when appointing new members of the Editorial Team for an 8-year term. The term may be reduced due to a member’s biased or unethical behaviour.

- They define and execute the Journal’s policy, handle complaints and misconducts.

- They disclose any conflicts of interest, should they emerge.

Roles and responsibilities of the Authors:

The Journal follows the CSE guidelines that define the Authors’ roles The Author-Editor relation is
founded on confidentiality.

− The Corresponding Author is responsible for managing all queries and communication
between the Journal and the Authors, including making corrections, providing feedback, and
providing necessary permissions.

− Authors provide a statement confirming the originality of the submitted study.

− They disclose the originality of the content, their actual contribution to the study, conflict of
interest, and funding.

− They follow the Journal’s or the Publisher’s guidelines concerning the reuse of any copyrighted
material and provides the material’s proper attribution. This includes the Author’s own work
as well.

− They should be aware of any data sharing responsibilities required by the funding agencies
(please see the Journal’s policy on data sharing).

− In the case of research involving humans, confidential materials and any other information
protected by legal regulations, Authors must provide appropriate consents and permissions.

Roles and responsibilities of the Reviewers

The Journal follows the CSE guidelines concerning the Reviewers’ roles and responsibilities

toward the Authors:

- Reviewers keep in confidence the details concerning the review process.

- They provide written, unbiased, and constructive feedback in a timely manner.

- They comment on the originality, accuracy, relevance, and linguistic competence of the article.

toward the Editors:

- Reviewers reply promptly to invitations.

- They disclose any conflict of interest, ethical concerns, bias, plagiarism, or any other
misconduct discovered.

- They provide constructive criticism.

- They indicate the ways to improve the manuscript.

toward the Readers:

- Reviewers make sure that the presented research can be validated by the methods and
analyses described in the manuscript.

- They make sure that the cited works are relevant and up to date.


1. Authorship and Contributionship


The Journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines and  defines the Author as a person who has made a significant intellectual contribution to the study,  drafted or reviewed it critically for important intellectual content, given the final approval of the article to be published and is accountable for all aspect of the work related to the accuracy and integrity of any part of the work. One has to meet all the four criteria to be defined as an Author.

The Corresponding Author confirms that all the individuals listed as Authors have contributed  significantly to the research presented in the submitted article. The Corresponding Author also  confirms that all individuals listed as Authors have contributed to the entire manuscript.


Individuals who do not meet all the four criteria of authorship cannot be listed as Authors. A proper  acknowledgement of their input should be provided in the manuscript. As per the ICMJE guidelines. Such individuals may be responsible for:

1. the acquisition of funding,

2. general supervision of a research group or general administrative support,

3. writing assistance,

4. technical editing,

5. language editing,

6. proofreading.

In the case of individuals who have contributed unequally to the work, the Editors recommend that  detailed information on their contribution be provided. The Journal strongly supports the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) when describing each  Contributor’s specific role. More information on CRediT can be found at:

Changes to authorship

If the Authors request that an Author be removed or added after the manuscript has been submitted or published, they provide an explanation of the requested change and a signed agreement from all the listed Authors, including the Author who is to be removed or added.

Changes to Authorship are allowed only before the acceptance of the manuscript and only if approved by the Editor. The Editor may agree to introduce changes to the Authorship. This includes name changes, addition, removal, or rearrangement of the Authors after the article has been accepted for publication. Such requests will result in a suspension of the manuscript until the issue is resolved. In the case of an already published material a corrigendum is released.

AI authorship

Upon submission of an article, the Journal requires the Authors to disclose whether they have used  artificial intelligence AI-assisted technologies (such as Large Language Models [LLMs], chatbots, or image creators). The Authors who have used such technology specify, in the cover letter or within the submitted work, the details of such usage. The use of AI for writing assistance should be disclosed in the acknowledgment section.

Unaccepted authorship

There are three types of authorship that are considered unacceptable:

  1. Ghost authors who contribute substantially but are not acknowledged.
  2. Guest authors who make no discernible contributions.
  3. Gift authors whose contribution is based solely on a tenuous affiliation with a study.

The Journal follows the definitions of inappropriate authorship as specified by the Council of Science Editors:


2. Complaints and qppeals

Apart from misconduct allegations, Editors encourage Authors, Reviewers, Readers, and other individuals to contact the EiC, Editors, Editorial Board Members, the Publisher, or the Editorial Office in the case of complaints against the Journal, its staff, the Editorial Board, Publisher, or Reviewers.

Individuals wishing to rise a concern or make a complaint may send an email to or call tel. (+48) 22 55 21 020. The appropriate party will investigate whether correct procedures have been followed. The complainant will be notified about the outcome in writing.

Complaints may concern editorial decisions, published articles, the review procedure, delays, unethical behaviour, and any other activity that is seen by the complainant as important.

If the complainant wishes to pursue the complaint further, they may contact COPE directly. The procedure is available at:


3. Conflicts of interest / Competing interests

All Authors must disclose any conflict of interest defined as a financial or personal relation with other  individuals or organizations, activities or positions that can bias the submitted article. Such conflict  includes but is not limited to the matters of familial kinship, employment, consulting services,  honoraria, and funding.

Conflict of interest also refers to any of the above-mentioned relations between Authors and the  Journal’s Editors, Reviewers, Editorial Board, Editorial Office, as well as the Publisher.

Authors are advised to disclose any potential conflict of interest before submitting the manuscript or  during the editorial procedure. The Journal will also acknowledge the post-publication disclosure.

Competing interest among the Journal staff, including Editors, Board, staff members and the Publisher,will be disclosed, if applicable, on the Journal’s website.

Reviewers are advised to disclose any potential conflict of interest when they agree to review a  manuscript or, if not yet known, after the publication.

If a concern about a conflict of interest is made, the manuscript will be assigned to a different Editor or Reviewer.

In the case of an acknowledged conflict of interest, the review procedures and the editorial decisions will be made independently of the disclosed information, based solely on the quality of the manuscript. More information can be found in the Description of the Peer Review Process section.


4. Data and reproducibility

Research data typically refers to digital, machine-readable files and can be defined as the results of experiments and observations that validate the research. The Journal encourages Authors to post their data in standard formats that can be accessed and re-used by others.

The Journal follows the Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reuse of digital assets (FAIR)  principles . It supports data integrity and encourages Authors to share the data associated with their research and any other information that supports it. The Journal also encourages Authors to share their data on social media, repositories, and personal and institutional websites.

The Journal supports the TRUST principles for digital repositories and encourages Authors to place the data in one of the repositories listed in OpenDOAR.

Authors should also follow institutional and, if applicable, the funding body’s guidelines when choosing the platform to share their data.

Authors are also encouraged to cite the data in their manuscript or indicate how to access the data by providing the DOI or access number.

The Journal encourages Authors to consult in order to determine how the published article can be shared.


5. Ethical oversight

Authors, Editors, Publishers, and Readers adhere to the publishing ethics described herein on theJournal page.

The Journal encourages reports on any unethical practices such as, but not limited to, fabrication of data/research/figures/tables, plagiarism, authorship falsification, duplicate publication, peer review manipulation, concealment of conflict of interest, paper mill publication, and others.

For all human research, management of confidential data, and marketing practices, the Author designated as the contact person must obtain permission for such activities and make it available to the Editor upon request.

If any concerns arise, Editors will follow the COPE guidelines.


6. Intellectual property


By submitting the manuscript, the Corresponding Author, also on behalf of all the Authors, agrees that:

- they accept the journal's terms and conditions of the text submission;

- the work is original,

- it has not previously been published and is not currently under consideration for publication elsewhere,

- all copyrighted material (e. g. block quotation or extracts) is properly acknowledged and the Author has obtained permission to use it, if necessary and/or required by law..

The Journal is published in an Open Access model np. CC BY 4.0, which allows for redistribution, reuse, and adaptation with attribution to the Authors.

Reviewers, Editors, Editorial Staff, Publisher

The Journal treats submissions as confidential during the whole editorial process until the manuscript  is published. All individuals involved in the process, including Reviewers, proceed with adequate  caution, most importantly to ensure that the manuscript or any of its parts are not disclosed, stolen or plagiarised. This also refers to instances of stealing research ideas.

Any allegations of theft or plagiarism must be substantiated and will be adequately investigated.

CC license

The Journal publishes under the CC BY 4.0 license (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license) ( that allows to share and adapt the contents of the published material with appropriate attribution to the authors.

Sharing is defined as copying or redistributing the article or its parts through any medium and in any format for any purpose.

Adapting is defined as remixing, transforming, and building upon the published material for any  purpose.

Users can freely access and use the published articles only when appropriate credit is given to the original publication and on the condition that they will not apply any legal terms or technological measures to restrict others from doing anything the license permits.

Authors retain the right for the published material.

Authors grant the Journal a non-exclusive licence to publish their articles.

If Authors are not permitted to retain the copyrights to the manuscript, they should contact the  Editorial Office before submission.


The Journal is published in an Open Access model. All published materials are freely and permanently available online immediately upon publication, without any charges (subscription, pay-per-view, etc.) or registration barriers.

There is no fee for Authors to publish their manuscripts. The Journal does not charge an Article  Processing Charge (APC), submission fees, the editing process fees or page charges.

Readers are free to read and use the published materials as per the CC BY regulations.

Plagiarism, duplicate publication, and fabrication

Only original work can be submitted. All quotations need to be appropriately indicated and referenced.

Any unacknowledged copying of large chunks of text, misattributing the original authorship (including ideas, arguments, results) will be treated as plagiarism. According to the Office of Research Integrity such practices include, but are not limited to theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and a substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work: .

When paraphrasing or summarising publications by others, Authors have to proceed with due care.

Text recycling is not allowed and will be treated as self-plagiarism (as per COPE guidelines: “sections of the same text appearing in more than one of an author's own publications”).

Duplicate/redundant publication occurs “when an author intentionally or unintentionally republishes his or her own work without informing the editor of the previous publication (…) and refers to  publication of an article’s content, which has substantial overlaps with one΄s paper already published in print or electronically” without proper references. (F. A. Habibzadeh and M. Winker, “Duplicate Publication and Plagiarism: Causes and Cures.” Notfall Rettungsmed 12, (2009), 415–418. DOI: 10.1007/s10049-009-1229-7).

Already published articles will be retracted or marked as plagiarised.


Any fragment of work which has been already copyrighted to a third party, published, posted or reposited in the form that has been submitted to the Journal will be considered as pre-publication and consequently will not be published.

Preprint is not considered as prior publication only if the work fulfils the following definition: “a complete scientific manuscript (often one also being submitted to a peer-reviewed journal) that is uploaded by the authors to a public server without formal review” (Jeremy M. Berg et al., ”Preprints for the Life Sciences.” Science 352 (2016), 899-901. DOI:10.1126/science.aaf9133).


7. Post-publication


The Journal supports post-publication debates regarding the published articles. Readers can submit their concerns, opinions, criticism, or letters of support. The Journal has the right to peer review the criticism, the response to criticism and to publish the discussion.

The discussions can also be held on third party moderated platforms, such as PubPeer.

As the Journal follows the COPE guidelines, the Editors require that criticism should:

- be reasonable,

- not contain libellous or defamatory content,

- have evidence or data that support the claims.

Readers can express their concern regarding the published material. The concerns should be sent via email at

Depending on the nature of the concern and the outcomes of an investigation, the Journal may publish:

- an addendum (significant information disclosed after the publication that enhances the readers’ understanding of the article),

- Editor’s note (to inform that an investigation has been started),

- editorial expression of concern (to alert the readers about serious concerns),

- correction,

- retraction,

- corrigendum.

In the above instances, the Journal follows the COPE guidelines  (


If an Author notices a mistake after the article has already been published, they are requested to contact the Editorial Office at Depending on the nature of the error,the Editorial Office will investigate the case and decide whether an erratum or corrigendum needs to be published. Only for substantial errors the procedure of corrections will be taken. Reports on mistakes in punctuation, mistakes not influencing the meaning of the paper or not affecting the scientific integrity of the paper, will not be processed.


The Journal follows the COPE guidelines ( with regard to the retraction process. An article will be immediately retracted if:

− It constitutes plagiarism,

− The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper attribution to previous sources or disclosure to the Editor, permission to republish, or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication),

− It contains material or data without authorisation for use,

− Copyrights have been violated or there is some other serious legal issue (e.g., libel, privacy),

− It contains unethical research,

− It has been published solely on the basis of a compromised or manipulated peer review process,

− The Author(s) failed to disclose a major competing interest that, in the view of the Editors, would have unduly affected interpretations of the work or recommendations by editors and peer reviewers.

An appropriate retraction note will be published both as an individual statement, separate from the article’s contents, and within the article on the first page of the online version.

Article removal

The Journal will not remove any published material unless it gravely violates the law. In such case, retraction is not sufficient, since the article may be subject to a court order or pose hazard to human beings.

In such cases the body of the article will be removed and only the metadata (the names of the Authors) retained, followed by a statement that explains the removal due to legal reasons.

Changes to authorship

For information concerning changes to the names of Authors, the order of listing, the affiliations etc. see the section Authorship and Contributorship – Changes to Authorship.

Originality, counteracting plagiarism/autoplagiarism, ghostwriting and guest authorship

Authors submit only original articles that have not been previously published or submitted to another journal, collective volume, etc. Republishing of all or part of a previously published text may be published only with a clear indication of this fact and only with the permission of the editorial team and the owner of the rights to the text. Submission of the same paper at the same time to more than one journal editorial as an unethical activity is not accepted by the editors of ”Dzieciństwo. Literatura i Kultura”.

The author is obliged to provide the editors with the original work, free from legal defects, not constituting plagiarism or self-plagiarism. They should refer by citing or adding an appropriate annotation in the text to all publications that contributed to the creation of the article. Please indicate and document the use of the work of other authors every time. Before submitting an article, make sure that the names of the authors cited therein and (or) quoted parts of the texts have been correctly cited or listed.

Authors are required to indicate potential conflicts of interest and inform about their affiliation.

The authors are obliged to disclose the contribution of individual authors to the publication (with their affiliation) and to ensure that all co-authors accepted the final version of the work and agreed to submit it for publication.

Any detected manifestations of scientific misconduct, including but not limited to:

  • plagiarism and self-plagiarism,
  • ghostwriting – no disclosure of other people's contributions to the publication,
  • guest authorship – situations when the co-author's contribution to the publication was insignificant or did not exist at all

will be documented, disclosed, and reported to the appropriate bodies (employing institutions, scholarly organizations, etc.) by the editors.

8. Other rules adopted by the journal

For sponsored issues, the source of funding is indicated in the journal issue on the editorial page and on the platform, and for individual articles – on the first page of the article and on the platform.

Authors are required to respond to the reviews and comments of the editors and make suggested changes or justify their refusal to do so.

Withdrawal of an article is allowed at any stage of the publishing process. In this case, if the author decides to submit the text elsewhere, its original version (before internal and external reviews, editing, etc.) should be proceeded.

The procedure for submission and review of articles for post-conference issues is analogous to that used for regular issues.

Supplements are not published.

If the article includes research conducted on humans and/or animals, the author must provide approval from the appropriate ethics committee or other permission to conduct such research.

The journal's editorial office registers and archives received complaints, objections, and appeals. Please provide a detailed description of the issue and specify the content or actions that are the subject of the complaint. The personal data of the complainant is kept confidential (unless written consent is given for its disclosure). Only the complainant, the Editors, and the Publisher have access to this information. The Editors provide a written response to received complaints, objections, and appeals within one month.

The editorial office is always ready to publish relevant corrections, explanations, or apologies if necessary. They will be available on the journal's website. In case of errors, they will be corrected in the form of errata.